Summary

#### Atomic Theory

“All things are made up of atoms.”

#### States of matter

Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma

#### States of Plasma

Plasma is simply defined as very high energy charged particles, or ions. Plasma is when the atoms have so much energy that it carries a charge. It is found from radiating away from the sun’s surface (solar winds).

Atomic theory and the four states of matter introduction

To understand the four states of matter, we must first revisit the atomic theory. The atomic theory is that all things are made up of atoms. When we zoom in and see the individual atoms (this is really not possible), we should be able to see these “particles” that are the atoms or molecules. These atoms or molecules in a simpler sense will be represented by circles or 3D balls to show their movement in various states.

Animation of the 3 states: http://mutuslab.cs.uwindsor.ca/schurko/animations/phasescontainers/phasescontainer.html

We are familiar with the 3 states of matter since we encounter the 3 everyday. The last state that is beyond the 3 states of matter is plasma. All 4 states of matter have their very unique properties. In order to fully grasp the understanding of the 3 primary states of matter, try to envision the molecules when they are in the various states. Are the molecules packed together? Fluid? What about the energy of the molecules? Are they fast? Random? What about the spaces between the molecules? Are there any spaces? Or are there a lot of spaces. Answering the above questions will help you understand the 3 primary states of matter on the shape, volume, density, energy, and compressibility.

The last state, plasma, is a lot different than the 3 states, so plasma is simply defined as very high energy charged particles, or ions. Plasma is when the atoms have so much energy that it carries a charge. It is found from radiating away from the sun’s surface (solar winds).

Topics Covered

• Describe the properties of solid, liquid, gases and plasma. Including density, compressibility, and diffusion.
• Use Kinetic molecular Theory to explain properties of gases. Include: random motion, intermolecular forces, elastic collisions, average kinetic energy, temperature, volatility and dynamic equilibrium..
• Explain the process of phase changes of freezing, melting, evaporation, condensation, sublimation, and deposition in terms of KMT
• Define vapour pressure and its implications
• Define boiling point temperatures in terms of vapour pressure
• Interpolate and extrapolate the vapour pressure and boiling temperatures of various substances from pressure vs. temperature graphs.