“All things are made up of atoms.”
States of matter
Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
State of Solids
- Has definite shape and volume
- High density and not very compressible
- Does not depend on the shape of the container (doesn’t fill it in)
State of Liquids
- Has a fixed volume
- Takes the shape of container
- Less dense than solids
- Almost incompressible
State of Gases
- Takes the shape of the container
- Takes the volume of container (this means that the gas molecules can be spread out evenly in the container or compressed in a smaller container. The volume is when the molecules are evenly distributed.)
- Can be compressed
- Gases are in the gaseous state at room temperature
- Gases have more energy than liquids, and solids.
- Gases are less dense.
State of Plasma
Plasma is simply an ionized gas, where the gas is charged with free electrons and positive ions because of the amount of energy plasma contains.
Unit 1.4 – Heating and Cooling Curves
Heating and cooling curves are a graphical representation of the phase change of a substance. The heating curve of a substance can be determined by heating a solid slowly until it changes to the gas phase while a cooling curve of a substance can be determined by condensing a gas until a solid is formed.
The following curve is a heating curve for ice.
What do you notice?
Why is there a plateau?
- In order for a solid to melt, energy is needed toovercome the intermolecular forces of attraction.
- The heat that warms the ice is used to overcome these forces of attraction, rather than increasing temperature.
- The temperature does not increase until all solid has disappeared.
What would happen if the temperature remained at the plateau?
- There would be a constant change of states from liquid to solid and vice versa.
- This is called dynamic equilibrium because there is an equal change.
Cooling curve of water
- 1.1 Properties of solid, liquid, gases and plasma. Including density, compressibility, and diffusion.
- 1.2 Phase changes of freezing, melting, evaporation, condensation, sublimation, and deposition in terms of KMT
- 1.3 Phase Diagrams
- 1.4Heating and Cooling Curves
- 1.5 Vapour pressure and boiling point temperatures in terms of vapour pressure
- 1.6 Conceptual Questions