Summary
Atomic Theory
“All things are made up of atoms.”
States of matter
Solid, liquid, gas, and plasma
State of Solids
 Has definite shape and volume
 High density and not very compressible
 Does not depend on the shape of the container (doesn’t fill it in)
State of Liquids
 Has a fixed volume
 Takes the shape of container
 Less dense than solids
 Almost incompressible
State of Gases
 Takes the shape of the container
 Takes the volume of container (this means that the gas molecules can be spread out evenly in the container or compressed in a smaller container. The volume is when the molecules are evenly distributed.)
 Can be compressed
 Gases are in the gaseous state at room temperature
 Gases have more energy than liquids, and solids.
 Gases are less dense.
State of Plasma
Plasma is simply an ionized gas, where the gas is charged with free electrons and positive ions because of the amount of energy plasma contains.
Unit 2.3 – Describe the various units used to measure pressure and conversions
There are several units that pressure is measured in. The unit Pascal is the S.I unit is equivalent to 1 N per square metre. To compare the unit Pascal to Atmosphere pressure of Atm, 101.3 kPa is for 1 Atm. In addition, the unit Torr named after Torricelli is equivalent to the amount of mercury displaced by the mercury barometer of 760mm, therefore 760 Torr = 760mm of Hg. For simplicity sake, all units can be compared to 1 Atmosphere, which is equivalent to 760 mm of Hg, 760 Torr, 101.3kPa, and 14.7 Psi.
Unit  Compared to 1 atm  Compared to 1 kPa 
KPa  1 atm = 101.3 kPa  
mmHg  1 atm = 760 mmHg  1 kPa = 7.501 mmHg 
torr  1 atm = 760 torr  1 kPa = 7.501 torr 
psi  1 atm = 14.7 psi  1 kPa = 0.145 psi 
atm  1 kPa = 0.009869 atm 
To convert an unit, since they are all proportional, use dimensional analysis to convert the units.
Converting 160kPa to all other units…
160kPa = 1.58atm

Topics Covered
 Identify the abundances of the naturally occurring gases in the atmosphere and examine how these abundances have changed over geologic time.
 Example the historical development of the measurement of pressure. Examples: contributions of Galileo, Toricelli, Otto von Guericke, Pascal, Huygens, Dalton, GayLussac
 Describe the various units used to measure pressure and conversions
 Boyle’s Law
 Charles’ Law
 GayLussac’s Law
 Combined Gas Law
 Conceptual Questions